Till the last decades, a million miles of cables are wound in the air across the country. But now it is placed in the underground, which is higher to an earlier method. Because, underground cables are not affected by any opposing weather condition like heavy rainfall, pollution, snow, and storm, etc. But, when any fault occurs in cable, it is very difficult to discover the exact place of the faulty due to not knowing the exact location of the cable. Currently, the world is becoming digitized so this project is proposed to find the fault cable location in a digital way. When the fault arises, the method of repairing connected to that specific cable is very difficult.
Most of the systems need at least one phase of amplification. Hence amplifiers can be used in almost all the electronic devices. These are the devices that raise the amplitude of the i/p signal. The o/p of the power supply is controlled by the Amplifier. These can only increase the amplitude and the other parameters like frequency and shape remain constant. The main function of an amplifier is to increase the amplitude of the signal without changing the parameters like the shape of the wave or frequency. Amplifiers are one of the most frequently used circuits in electronics and achieve a variety of functions in great several electronic systems. There are numerous types of amplifiers accessible. But they can be famous by the type of signal they amplify. The different types of amplifiers can be classified by the kind of function they execute. The important characteristics of an amplifier include bandwidth, noise, skew rate, gain, stability, linearity, efficiency, output dynamic range.
The term “Square wave” can be defined as a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform that can be denoted as an infinite summary of sinusoidal waves. It has an alternate of amplitude at a fixed frequency between stable min and max value with the equal duration. Generally, this type of generator is used in various applications like electronics and in signal processing. This wave is the special example of rectangular wave. The square wave generator is just similar to a Schmitt trigger in which the reference voltage for the comparator depends on the o/p voltage. It is also called as an astable multivibrator.
The terms microprocessor and microcontroller have always been confused with each other. Both of them have been intended for real-time use. They share several mutual features and also they have important differences. Both the IC’s such as the Microprocessor & microcontroller cannot be well-known by looking at them. They are obtainable in different version starting from 6-pin to as high as 80-100-pins depending on the features.
The term ‘GPS’ stands for Global Positioning System module is a device that has become a most important tool in the surveillance field, scientific use, and tracking. This GPS modem is based on satellite navigation technology that provides the information of time and location in all weather situations anyplace on the earth. The main use of the GPS system is to track the vehicle or person’s location. A GPS receiver finds the exact location of an object in terms of longitude, latitude and also offers timing services, reliable navigation and positioning to the users at any place and anytime on the earth.This article discusses how GPS modem interfaces with an 8051 microcontroller working, and its applications.