The sensor is a sophisticated device that is frequently used to sense and respond to electrical (or) optical signals. Usually, the output of the sensor will be in the form of an electrical signal or optical signal. In our daily life, we use different types of sensors frequently in various applications like the Infrared sensor is used to operate the TV remote, PIR sensor is used in automatic door opening and closing, LDR sensor is used in street lighting system, etc. In this article, e will discuss a few kinds of sensors and their uses in brief.
The various electrical and electronics components and many other types of electronic devices use a semiconductor, rather than a conductor. A semiconductor is one type of material like Si (silicon), that has some of the properties, that has some properties of both the conductors and also insulators. In fact, they have termed a whole valley in California after it. In its clean state, Si behaviors an electric current poorly.But, if we add soils like phosphorus or boron to the Si, it conducts. When you add phosphorus, it becomes an “n”-type semiconductor similarly, we add boron, it becomes a “p”-type semiconductor. A P-type semiconductor has fewer electrons than a pure semiconductor and an N-type semiconductor has more electrons than pure semiconductors.When the regions comprising phosphorus and boron are next to each other in Si, you have a PN-junction. The flow of current is only in one direction across a PN-junction.
Nowadays, in several complex systems, there is a simple problem for car parking systems. There are various lanes of vehicle parking, So to park a car one has to search for the lanes. Moreover, there are a lot of labor men involved in this procedure for which there is lots of investment. To overcome this problem, here is a system which specifies the parking slot is vacant in any lane. This project includes IR transmitter, IR receiver in every lane and also a LED and LCD displays at the outside of the car parking gate. So the person entering into parking area can see the display board and can select which lane to enter so as to car parking.
The power supply circuit in any electrical and electronic circuit plays a vital role to give the power to the entire circuit. The different circuits require various kinds of power at different ranges and characteristics. So, the power is changed into the required form by adopting different power converters. Fundamentally, different types of circuits work with various kinds of power supplies such as SMPS. The term SMPS stands for switch mode power supply, AC to DC power supply, AC power supply, high voltage power supply programmable power supply, and UPS (uninterruptible power supply).
During traveling on the bus or the train, we carry many things like luggage and costly things, but we have the fear that somebody might steal the luggage. So to guard our luggage, we usually lock our luggage through the old methods with the help of lock and chain. After all these, we still stay in fear that any thief may break the chain and take away all the valuable things. To overcome this problem, here is a system, namely luggage security alarm circuit which is based on the NAND gate. The main aim of this system is to generate an alarm when any unauthorized person tries to steal your luggage. This system is very useful when you travel in the night time. Another application of this luggage security alarm system is, you can use in your home for the security from the theft.