Till the last decades, a million miles of cables are wound in the air across the country. But now it is placed in the underground, which is higher to an earlier method. Because, underground cables are not affected by any opposing weather condition like heavy rainfall, pollution, snow, and storm, etc. But, when any fault occurs in cable, it is very difficult to discover the exact place of the faulty due to not knowing the exact location of the cable. Currently, the world is becoming digitized so this project is proposed to find the fault cable location in a digital way. When the fault arises, the method of repairing connected to that specific cable is very difficult.
To understand the roots of SCADA, we must know the industrial organization’s problems which are trying to solve. Before the SCADA concept was introduced in the mid-20th century, several industrial floors, plants, and remote sites depend on personnel to physically control and monitor apparatus through analog dials and push buttons. As industries began to scale out in size, solutions were required for equipment controlling over long distances. The group of Industries has started to use relays and timers to offer some level of supervisory control without taking to send people to remote sites to network with each device.
While timers and relays solved several problems by giving narrow automation functionality, more problems began to rise as organizations sustained to scale out. The reconfiguration of Relays and timers were difficult. A more effective and fully automatic control system and checking were needed. The term “SCADA” was invented in the early 1970s, and the growth of microprocessors and PLCs during that period increased enterprises’ capability to monitor & control automated processes more than ever before.
Most of the systems need at least one phase of amplification. Hence amplifiers can be used in almost all the electronic devices. These are the devices that raise the amplitude of the i/p signal. The o/p of the power supply is controlled by the Amplifier. These can only increase the amplitude and the other parameters like frequency and shape remain constant. The main function of an amplifier is to increase the amplitude of the signal without changing the parameters like the shape of the wave or frequency. Amplifiers are one of the most frequently used circuits in electronics and achieve a variety of functions in great several electronic systems. There are numerous types of amplifiers accessible. But they can be famous by the type of signal they amplify. The different types of amplifiers can be classified by the kind of function they execute. The important characteristics of an amplifier include bandwidth, noise, skew rate, gain, stability, linearity, efficiency, output dynamic range.
The term “Square wave” can be defined as a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform that can be denoted as an infinite summary of sinusoidal waves. It has an alternate of amplitude at a fixed frequency between stable min and max value with the equal duration. Generally, this type of generator is used in various applications like electronics and in signal processing. This wave is the special example of rectangular wave. The square wave generator is just similar to a Schmitt trigger in which the reference voltage for the comparator depends on the o/p voltage. It is also called as an astable multivibrator.
In daily life, there several types of accidents are occurring. Accidents may cause due to various reasons like brake failure, drunk, and drive, etc. Most of the accidents will occur due to over drunken drivers. In order to overcome this problem, this accident avoidance system project is implemented. This project uses an alcohol sensor which is used to sense the drunken person from 200ppm onwards. If the person is drunk, Firstly we check him whether he is dunked or not. Then, this module is placed in automobiles. If the driver is dunked then the sensor will detect the alcohol amount spent by the person and it will close by buzzing using a buzzer.